his friend と a friend of his の違い。高上 細かい英文法①


Please tell me the difference of ”his friend” and ”friend of his”.


The phrases “his friend” and “a friend of his” are often used interchangeably in English and essentially mean the same thing: that a particular person is a friend to “him.” However, there are subtle differences in tone, emphasis, and usage between the two phrases.

His Friend

  1. Specificity: “His friend” is often more direct and specific. If you say, “This is his friend, John,” it usually suggests that you’re introducing one specific friend.
  2. Ownership: The possessive form “his” denotes a direct relationship, implying perhaps a sense of “belonging” or “possession” (though, of course, friendships are not a form of possession).
  3. Formality: It’s straightforward and more formal. For example, in an article or news story, you might read, “He was accompanied by his friend.”
  4. Contextual Limitations: “His friend” often requires context for clarity. For example, if you just say “his friend” without introducing who this friend is, it may be unclear to the listener who you’re talking about.

A Friend of His

  1. Generality: The phrase “a friend of his” tends to be more general. If you say, “John is a friend of his,” it implies that John is one of possibly several or many friends.
  2. Distance: This form can imply a bit more emotional or social distance than “his friend.” Saying “a friend of his” might suggest that the friendship isn’t uniquely significant in a way that would merit the direct possessive form.
  3. Casualness: The phrase feels a bit more conversational or casual than “his friend.”
  4. Standalone Context: “A friend of his” can often stand alone without additional context and still make sense to the listener.

In some sentences, you can use either form without much difference in meaning. However, the choice between “his friend” and “a friend of his” can subtly influence the tone and nuance of what you’re trying to convey.


his friend の方が直接的で硬い表現であるとは面白いところですね。a frined of his の場合、彼には別の友だちがいることも示唆しているというのは最初にa がついていることからも伝わるかと思います。それでは、人ではない場合はどうなるのでしょうか?

Please tell me the difference of Japan’s climate the climate of Japan.


The phrases “Japan’s climate” and “the climate of Japan” both refer to the same thing: the general weather conditions in Japan. However, there are slight differences in emphasis and style between the two expressions:

Japan’s Climate

  1. Conciseness: This form is more concise, making it suitable for headlines, titles, or other contexts where brevity is important.
  2. Ownership: Using the possessive form (“Japan’s”) implies a direct relationship or characteristic of Japan.
  3. Formality: It can be perceived as slightly more casual, though it is perfectly acceptable in both formal and informal contexts.
  4. Flow: This form often fits more naturally into spoken English or casual conversation.

The Climate of Japan

  1. Specificity: This form may be seen as slightly more specific or focused. It makes “climate” the central focus of the statement, suggesting a detailed or academic discussion.
  2. Neutrality: It does not use the possessive form, which can sometimes be perceived as slightly more neutral or detached.
  3. Formality: This form can come across as more formal and might be more commonly found in scientific papers, reports, or academic settings.
  4. Clarity: In contexts where multiple attributes or characteristics of Japan might be discussed, this form could add clarity by making “climate” the clear subject.

In most contexts, the two phrases can be used interchangeably without changing the meaning of the sentence. The choice between them is often a matter of stylistic preference, the need for formal versus informal language, or the specific demands of the writing or speaking context in which the phrase is used.


今度は the climate of Japan の方が硬いとの認識が示されました。ここもなかなか面白いところです。ただし、英語を話そうと思った場合、細かい文法にこだわりすぎると言葉が出てこなくなりがちです。とにかく覚えている表現をはっきりと話してみるようにしましょう。

高上代表 佐藤一行


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